# Exploring Data/Descriptive Statistics (including Normal Distributions and Regression)

“Exploratory analysis of data makes use of graphical and numerical techniques to study patterns and departures from patterns. In examining distributions of data, students should be able to detect important characteristics, such as shape, location, variability and unusual values. From careful observations of patterns in data, students can generate conjectures about relationships among variables. The notion of how one variable may be associated with another permeates almost all of statistics, from simple comparisons of proportions through linear regression. The difference between association and causation must accompany this conceptual development throughout.”

Types of Data

• Categorical vs Quantitive
• Ratio, Interval, Discrete, Continuous

Graphical Displays of Data

• Dotplot
• Stem and Leaf Plot
• Bar Graphs
• Histograms
• Pie Charts
• Time Plots

Numerical Analysis of Data

• Mean
• Median
• Mode
• Quartiles
• 5 Number Summary
• Box and Whisker Plots
• Standard Deviation

Distributions/The Normal Distribution

• Normal Calculations

Bivariate Data/Regression

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